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#### PHP Operators

- Arithmetic Operators
- Comparison Operators
- Logical (or Relational) Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Conditional (or ternary) Operators

##### Arithmetic Operators:

There are following arithmetic operators supported by PHP language:

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then:

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

+ | Adds two operands | A + B will give 30 |

- | Subtracts second operand from the first | A - B will give -10 |

* | Multiply both operands | A * B will give 200 |

/ | Divide numerator by denominator | B / A will give 2 |

% | Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division | B % A will give 0 |

++ | Increment operator, increases integer value by one | A++ will give 11 |

-- | Decrement operator, decreases integer value by one | A-- will give 9 |

##### Comparison Operators:

There are following comparison operators supported by PHP language

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then:

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

== | Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A == B) is not true. |

!= | Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. | (A != B) is true. |

> | Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A > B) is not true. |

< | Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A < B) is true. |

>= | Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A >= B) is not true. |

<= | Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A <= B) is true. |

##### Logical Operators:

There are following logical operators supported by PHP language

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then:

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

and | Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are true then then condition becomes true. | (A and B) is true. |

or | Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non zero then then condition becomes true. | (A or B) is true. |

&& | Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non zero then then condition becomes true. | (A && B) is true. |

|| | Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non zero then then condition becomes true. | (A || B) is true. |

! | Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false. | !(A && B) is false. |

##### Assignment Operators:

There are following assignment operators supported by PHP language:

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

= | Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand | C = A + B will assign value of A + B into C |

+= | Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand | C += A is equivalent to C = C + A |

-= | Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand | C -= A is equivalent to C = C - A |

*= | Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand | C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A |

/= | Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand | C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A |

%= | Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand | C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A |

##### Conditional Operator:

There is one more operator called conditional operator. This first evaluates an expression for a true or false value and then execute one of the two given statements depending upon the result of the evaluation. The conditional operator has this syntax:

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

? : | Conditional Expression | If Condition is true ? Then value X : Otherwise value Y |

##### Operators Categories:

All the operators we have discussed above can be categorised into following categories:

- Unary prefix operators, which precede a single operand.
- Binary operators, which take two operands and perform a variety of arithmetic and logical operations.
- The conditional operator (a ternary operator), which takes three operands and evaluates either the second or third expression, depending on the evaluation of the first expression.
- Assignment operators, which assign a value to a variable.

##### Precedence of PHP Operators:

Operator precedence determines the grouping of terms in an expression. This affects how an expression is evaluated. Certain operators have higher precedence than others; for example, the multiplication operator has higher precedence than the addition operator:

Category | Operator | Associativity |
---|---|---|

Unary | ! ++ -- | Right to left |

Multiplicative | * / % | Left to right |

Additive | + - | Left to right |

Relational | < <= > >= | Left to right |

Equality | == != | Left to right |

Logical AND | && | Left to right |

Logical OR | || | Left to right |

Conditional | ?: | Right to left |

Assignment | = += -= *= /= %= | Right to left |